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How to Improve Garden Soil Over the Winter

Although it can be tempting to think of gardening as a warm-weather pastime, there are many things we can be doing through the colder months to help our garden along.

Winter is the perfect time to think about improving our garden soil. Whether you’re a fan of a beautiful flower bed or want your kitchen garden to be as productive as possible, any steps you take now will pay dividends in the summer.

Let’s find out the best ways to improve garden soil over the winter!

How Can I Improve Old Garden Soil Over the Winter?

Winter is my absolute favorite time of year to work on improving my old garden soil.

Everything slows down in the winter, and most of us will have just a few cold-hardy shrubs and vegetables in the ground. This is a great time of year to take stock and see what replenishment our soil needs.

If I have it, my favorite way to improve garden soil over the winter is to simply add a top dressing of compost.

compost bins
A simple, homemade compost pile provides you with excellent compost year-round.

Like most homesteaders, I don’t like spending money unnecessarily, so making as much of my own compost as possible is always a top priority.

In our garden, we use organic no-till methods, which hugely reduce the work involved in adding compost to the soil. No backbreaking digging here – we just spread a layer of compost on the soil, and let nature do the rest!

But it can take several years to get to peak compost production levels, so what else can you do to improve your garden soil over winter? Luckily, we have many more tricks up our sleeves!

How Can I Improve My Garden Soil Cheaply Over the Winter?

If you’re on a tight budget, there are some clever hacks you can use to improve your garden soil over winter. And while the most obvious of these is to make our own compost, there is a far quicker way to improve your garden soil – green manures!

Green manures, also known as cover crops, are seeds that are sown on bare, dormant ground. These germinate and grow quickly, protecting the soil from erosion and adding essential organic matter and nutrients to the soil

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And when you are ready to plant in the spring, the cover crop will either have died naturally, or can be cut down, pulled up, or dug into the soil.

Cheap, easy, and very effective – what more could you want!

What to Add to Your Soil to Make It Drain Better Over the Winter

muddy soil
Muddy soil isn’t anyone’s idea of fun. Fix it with compost!

If you live in an area of high rainfall or have heavy clay ground, you will know the difficulties caused by poor drainage. Cold, waterlogged soil leads to unhappy plants with poor growth and low yields.

I know that you’re going to think this is my answer to everything, but the key to helping soil drain is organic matter – yes, more compost!

If the soil is very compacted then this may need to be dug in, and it can take several years to see a big difference.

Are Coffee Grounds Good for Improving Garden Soil?

coffee grounds in garden
Coffee grounds contain nitrogen, potassium, phosphorous, and other micronutrients. They can also contain residual levels of caffeine, however, which can inhibit plant growth. Adding your coffee grounds to the compost bin is the best way of using coffee in your garden.

Coffee grounds contain high levels of nitrogen, as well as potassium, phosphorous and essential micronutrients. This makes them a handy tool for improving garden soil, but certain precautions should be taken.

Firstly, the residual caffeine in coffee grounds can inhibit plant growth. This means they should not be applied directly around young plants and seedlings, and should not be used in seed compost.

Secondly, coffee grounds can become quite compacted, mimicking the effect of solid, clay soil. To get the best from your used coffee grounds, they should be mixed with other organic matter.

I’d suggest that you add coffee grounds to your compost bin, rather than using them as a top dressing for soil. This will give you the best results from this useful waste product.

Improving Winter Soil – Frequently Asked Questions

We know the pain of trying to grow in soil that is less than perfect!

That’s why we want to share our solutions with you in our garden soil improvement FAQs – especially for those of you who are striving to get the most out of your productive kitchen garden.

What Can I Add to My Garden Soil to Make It Better?

You may see many different chemicals and fertilizers on sale at your garden store, but all your soil really needs is organic matter!

The best and most productive soil is that which mimics the natural cycle of plant growth.

Imagine what happens in nature – plants grow, then either die or drop their leaves and fruits during the colder months. These decompose on the surface of the soil, putting the nutrients right back where they came from.

When we harvest our fruits and vegetables and take away dead plant growth, we are interrupting this essential cycle. So, all you need to do is recreate the circle of life, by adding composted organic material back to the soil!

How Do You Enrich Poor Garden Soil?

The best way to enrich poor garden soil is by adding large quantities of composted organic matter. This could be the contents of your compost bin, or well-rotted animal manure and bedding.

Can You Amend Soil In the Winter?

Winter is a great time to amend soil!

It might look like nothing much is happening out there, but under the surface, billions of insects and microorganisms are working away to improve your soil. All we need to do is give them the right material to work with!

As we don’t tend to have as many vegetables in the ground in the winter, I will normally use this time to add a top dressing of compost to all of my empty vegetable beds.

The worms and bugs will happily incorporate this into your soil over the colder months, giving you the perfect soil for planting in the spring!

How Do I Add Nutrients to My Soil In the Winter?

How you add nutrients to your soil in winter depends on your climate and the sorts of challenges you face. For example, I would love to use mulches such as grass cuttings, but in our wet winter climate, the result would be slug Armageddon!

If you don’t have access to large amounts of compost, then a quick and easy way to add nutrients to your soil in the winter is to use worm castings. Think of these as super-potent little compost bombs, packed full of all the nutrients that your garden needs!

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08/12/2022 06:06 pm GMT

Should You Cover Soil During Winter?

Many people panic when they see bare soil and feel the urge to cover it! But is this necessary?

Although it isn’t essential to cover your soil in the winter, it’s generally best not to have any “bare” soil. Covering your soil with mulch, cover crops, or other material protects it from erosion, sunburn, frost – the microorganisms in your soil with thank you!

Covering your soil can also help to prevent weed growth – it beats pulling weeds by hand!

Another reason some people like to cover soil over winter is to protect the soil and preserve nutrients. If you are likely to experience heavy rainfall or high winds, covering the soil will prevent erosion of your precious topsoil.

Should I Cover My Garden Beds in Winter?

Covering your soil in winter is also a good idea if you have added a top dressing of mulch to your garden beds. This will leave the bugs and worms in peace to work away on your soil, without those pesky birds scattering your lovely compost everywhere!

A cover over a garden bed will also keep the soil warmer, and protect it from frost. Your tiny microorganisms will be working away happily under cover all winter, ready to give you beautiful weed-free soil in the spring! 

Do you have any winter gardening tips? What do you like to add to your soil? Let us know in the comments below!


  • Kate moved to Portugal last year and lives with her husband, two cats, six hens, and a glorious Brahma rooster called Mary. Earlier this year they purchased a half-hectare ‘quinta’ – traditional terraced land with olive trees, grapevines, and a house to renovate. They are currently living in a small campervan which is a challenging but fun experience! Kate has over 15 years of experience in the UK veterinary industry and is also a passionate gardener – turning a grassy field into a productive vegetable patch in just three months. Future plans include more animals, particularly sheep and goats for milk production to make cheese, butter, and yogurt! Kate and her husband are aiming to create a self-sufficient off-grid life on their quinta, fulfilling a life-long dream.